What is Skin cancer: Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer found in humans. Around 1 million skin cancer cases were registered for every early and this annual rate is increasing drastically due to increase in risk factors. Skin cancer can be recognized by the changes in appearance of the skin. Skin cancer causes the skin cells to grow rapidly without any controlling limit.
Skin cancer is a combination of several diseases with different types of causes, symptoms and treatments. Skin cancer effects the basic life cycle of the cells and causes an abnormal growth and division of cells without any controlling limit, then it results in forming tumor (excess tissue) in the body.
Tumors are of two types, they are as follows:
• Benign tumor
• Malignant tumor
Benign tumor: This tumor is not cancerous. They can be treated easily. They don’t spread to other parts of the body. If this tumor continues to grow in the same site for long time then it causes damage to the distant organs.
Malignant tumor: This tumor is cancerous, they causes damage to the adjacent organs by spreading the cancer cells at high rate. The cells in this tumor invade the distant organs and forms new tumors through blood flow or by lymphatic system. The new tumor has the same characteristic features of the primary tumor. For example, if the skin cancer spreads to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually belonging to the skin cancer cells. Then this disease is called as metastatic skin cancer.
Skin cancer types: Skin cancer is categorized into three different types they are
• Basal cell carcinoma
• Squamous cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer is not metastatic .It doesn’t spread to other parts but causes damage to nearby tissues. The risk factors for basal cell carcinoma are listed below. The basal cell carcinoma looks like dome shaped bump. This bump shape is covered by the telangiectases blood vessels .the starting stage of this benign tumor cannot be detected easily because it is shiny and translucent. With the biopsy process we can detect the starting age of this skin cancer. Some of the carcinomas contain melanin pigment which makes the tumor to look dark rather than shiny.
Basal cell carcinomas generally appear on the back side or chest. Basal cell carcinomas make the skin dry with raw patches. These carcinomas take several years to grow into uncontrolled size and damage the nearby senses by disfiguring ear, nose or eye.
Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs in the squamous cells. These carcinomas appear to be thin, flat cells which look like fish scales. These Squamous cells present in the surface tissues of the skin. So if there is any abnormality in the squamous cells, then Squamous cell carcinoma occurs. Due to excess growth of squamous carcinoma cells a mound is formed which is called as keratoacanthoma.
Risk factors of basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma and Melanoma:
Age: This type of skin cancer occurs after the age of 50 years. But the sun burning effects starts in the early stage.
Sun exposure: People who face severe blistering sunburns can have the chance of occurring melanoma cancer. So, sunburns in young age will be a risk factor for casing basal cell carcinoma cancer. Take sun lotion creams to avoid the risk factor of melanoma cancer.
UV radiation: Due to long exposure to the ultraviolet radiations, the chances of having basal cell carcinoma cancer increases. People who stay in the sun for longer time will have more risk factors. Due to this UV rays the skin becomes grey and causes skin irritation. Aging of the skin appears due to increase in risk factors. So, please stay away from UV rays to reduce the risk factors of basal cell carcinoma cancer.
Therapeutic treatment: Taking this treatment for curing other cancer diseases can increase the chance of having basal cell carcinoma cancer.
Weak immune system: People with weak immune system will have more chances of getting skin cancer.
Family pedigree: Risk factors of skin cancer sometimes can be caused due to the family relation link. It some time runs in the families. So please take regular checkup to reduce the risk factors of this cancer.
Fair skin: People with fair skin have more chances to expose to melanoma cancer because it is easily burned and freaked out. So, people with fair skin should take some skin lotions to reduce the causing factors of melanoma cancer.
Having more moles on the body: Too many moles in the body can cause melanoma cancer for sure.
Skin cancer symptoms and signs:
• Gray skin
• Head aches
• Swollen lymph nodes
• Pain in moles
• Border irregularity
• Color diameter
• Weight loss
• Chronic cough
• Skin thickening
• Itching, tingling, Irritations.
Treatment for basal cell carcinoma and Squamous cell carcinoma:
Surgical operation: Surgery operation is carried to remove the entire tumor. This process is useful during the early stages of the tumor occurrence.
Curettage and desiccation: Curette is the instrument used by the dermatologists to remove the tumor by scooping out the cell carcinoma. And desiccation is the electric current process useful in burning the remained cancer cells. This treatment is carried for small cancers.
Radiation therapy: This treatment is based on the extent of the skin disease. Radiotherapy is a process of removing carcinoma cancer cells by using high intensity x-rays. These high energy x-rays are aimed at the effected part of the skin surface to destroy the cancer cells.
Cryo surgery: This is a new process evolved in treating the carcinoma cancer cells. In this process the cancer causing cells in the body are destroyed completely by injecting a freezing liquid through intravascular veins of the body. The freezing liquid used in this treatment process is nothing but argon or liquid nitrogen. This freezing liquid is directly injected into the body for the removal of cancer cells. This treatment is given when there is advancement in the skin cancer. This treatment produces side effects like damage to the urethra and bladder by damaging normal cells.
Mohs micrographic surgery: This treatment process gives 98 percent of success rate in removing carcinoma cells. This treatment causes very low side effects and damages very less normal cells. This process is carried by making small incision to the effected part of the body for removing the entire carcinoma tumor or part of it by micrographic instruments. The sequence of removing carcinoma cells is carried continuously without causing any pain. The cure rate is very high and this is the best process for treating advanced skin cancers.
Medical therapy by using creams: This treatment can be taken to avoid surgery. This medical therapy creams kills the cancer cells and increases the body immune system to protect from infections.
Treatment of melanoma cancer:
Surgery: Surgery is carried to remove the cancer tumor. Surgery can be carried in the early stages of the tumor occurrence. Surgery is taken place only if the cancer is located in only one part of the body. During the surgery process the damaged lymph nodes are also removed along with the tumor. This surgery process depends on the location, area and size of the tumor.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs are called as anti-cancer drugs used to destroy cancer cells .there are many types of chemotherapy drugs available in the market for the treatment of cancer. These drugs are available in the form of pills but mostly given by drip into the blood veins.
Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy is a process of removing cancer cells by using high intensity x-rays. These high energy x-rays are aimed at the cancer affected part of the body to destroy the cancer cells. This process also causes damage to the normal cells for its side effects.
Biotherapy: Due to weak immune system in the body, there are chances for the development of cancer. So this Biotherapy treatment process is useful in rebuilding strong immune system in the body. Biotherapy is also called as immunotherapy or biological response modifier therapy. This treatment process is really useful in repairing, enhancing and stimulating the weak immune system of the body. This process can be carried along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Melanoma cancer is treated as the serious skin cancer disease due to its risk factors. It is treated as a malignant tumor because it spreads through out the body. The treatment for this melanoma cancer should be carried in the early stages to cure it completely.
Basal cell carcinoma and Squamous cell carcinoma are most common type of skin cancers found in people. These two types of skin cancers are together called as Non-melanoma skin cancer. Melanoma skin cancer is termed as metastatic skin cancer because of its serious effects. Melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer which spreads through out the body.
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